Leadership and Company

Abstract
Your abstract should be one paragraph and should not exceed 120 words. It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click Word Count.

Critical Thinking Assignment
Cliffside Holding Company of Massapequa (CHCM) is a company that has been run for over 50 years. This company has compiled and thought of a bigger plan to help the company in its growth to help the company become more successful in the future years. An idea was proposed to start a leadership education course for the junior executives so that they may grow in to higher position. A memo was created by the Vp of human resources to show whether they support the idea that was proposed by………

The memo is to show facts from the VP why this program was not credible within the business. With this paper, I hope to show that with my critical thinking and using the critical thinking model that I have found the memo is based upon fallacies and is not a good idea to consider for the growth of CHCM.

What are the Issues and Conclusion?
CHCM has proposed to create a leadership-development program to prepare junior financial executives for future advancement into executive positions. They are proposing that this advancement in education will cost about approximately $5,000.00 per junior executive a year. There will be 20 participants selected so it will total approximately $1,000.00. Annually. The Vice president of human resources sees this as a negative towards the company because their goal is always thrive in their competitive market. The vice president also sees this as a hindrance because it is believed that leaders are self-made meaning born with natural leadership and cannot be created or coached by teaching a series of courses.

In conclusion, to the memo the vice president wants to believe that all positions filled for future executive should be from potential employees that are self-made, the future employees that the company would hire would possess the characteristics needed for the position applying for that certain position..

CHCM is already profiting and should not have to provide a higher education to get those prepared for higher positions. By offering this it takes money away from the company and the funds that they accrue. It was also observed that it is not necessary to offer this perk or proposition to the lower level executives because majority of the upper level executives are self-motivated and they have the ability to lead others by example and this is all done naturally So in turn the VP of HR. believes that this new preposition is an complete waste of time. The junior executes that want to one day become Executives cannot be taught something that only their naturally. What are the Reasons?

The Vice president of human resources has definitely shown a dis-interest in the company offering advanced leadership training. The VP has stated that the company has been in business for over 50 years and the average growth rate is 12% per annum. So information has been provided that the company has been very successful in growth before this company has implemented these courses for the junior executives. Another reason that the VP felt this was not a good idea was from the research that was done out of Wikipedia that many successful leaders have been self-made and great at influencing others. It was then that the names of leaders that were self-driven and successful were listed. These people had posse these characteristics from the start and definitely were not need coached into any type of leadership roles by taking courses.

And a lot of the research was done through self-observation that most leaders are of tall stature this means of 6 feet or higher and was proven to be true with the executives that are working for the company right now. The only person that would object to this theory would be Ms. Forsythe’s because she is of shorter stature. In addition, the last reason would be that the director of… Ms. Forsythe just has a personal agenda to negate any ideas or thoughts that are brought upon By the VP of Hr. Which words or phrases are ambiguous?

Ambiguity means doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness and or capable of being understood in two or more possible senses or ways. The VP definitely left me with doubt or uncertainty in my mind. He stated “Once we start sending some people for leadership training, we will start getting numerous requests for expensive training that we simply can’t afford. Regardless, if we spend our money on leadership development, we will not have enough to spend on recruitment. “This appeared to be ambiguous because he stated that the company had a growth rate of 12.5 percent without the program. So I don’t understand why they would not continue to grow at that time. They would have more qualified executives to help the company to profit in the upper level executive management.

Then he stated”There are plenty of people who are already leaders; we do not need to “train” those who are not. “ This shows me that the company could possibly use the program. I understand that they could at least try the program and it won’t hurt the company. Instead, Ms. Forsythe has a personal agenda to discredit me personally and push the theories of the Aspen Institute. As VP of Human Resources, I don’t think those theories are appropriate for the culture of CHCM. I thought this was ambiguous because it really does not suggest how she has a personal agenda of if the VP is really just not understanding Ms. Forsythe’s position in what she has stated or agued.

What are the Value and descriptive assumption?
The Value and descriptive assumption is noted that great executive leaders cannot be created they only can be self-driven. This is a value assumption because this has no evidence that successful executives cannot be developed by giving them leadership courses

Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?
The memo provided facts and observations to support the VP’s argument. However, the question is could they be considered factual findings or are the just based solely on the VP’s opinion. Soon after reading and analyzing the reasoning that the VP gave, I focused on what stood out to me and that was the statement that most successful leaders were tall above 6 feet tall. I look at the stats provided with the chart only to see that these were something that was just created for the memo and had no other true credibility. I believe this is a true fallacy. It is based upon someone’s own observation and if we based the way all companies ran and what they added to their company on solely opinion there would be very few successful business.

There was no true evidence from an actual study being done to hold this information to be true, so the backup was definitely lacking from this argument. It led me to think that this research was not done and that it did not match to support the conclusion that was given. By stating, that leadership was based upon height I would like to have seen this compared with other companies or schools findings to give me an unreasonable doubt. He also states that Ms. Foresthye had a personal agenda to discredit him. However, he never lists the examples to what she said or did to try to do this. So once again, I believe it is based solely on personal opinions and I am sure she, the next person, and I will definitely have a difference in opinion. It distorted my thoughts about the true motives of the proposers and ideas, when the focus should have been on the program, whether not it would be worth it, and if we can hold merit to what Ms. Foresthye stated. It led me to believe that the person proposed this idea for a personal agenda and not for the best of the company. In addition, if he believes that this was an actual true mannerism He should have provided more findings..

How good is the evidence?
….. Provided evidence to support his or her reasoning. Nevertheless, my next question that popped in my mind was this good enough to support the conclusion that was brought to the director about MS foresthye merit. The first answer that appeared in my head was not very convincing. I wanted more findings because there was not a lot of evidence from what was concluded. It was not strong enough or compelling enough to have me convinced that facts presented would hold weight to determine whether this company should invest in their future growth of executives . I believe that the sources of the evidence where minimal and it seemed a little made up from just their own personal opinions. I believe in the memo they used quotes from individuals that they found significant to the growth of becoming an executive. The only evidence that I found plausible within in this case is the fact that the company grows 12.5 percent annually.

Are there rival Causes?
Are the statistics deceptive?
The statistics were very deceptive. It was based purely on the observations of the naked eye. It was bias in an aspect and could be considered discriminatory. It was noted that the height had something to do with whether a person could become a strong executive. It also suggested that because the hierarchies of the company were tall except one that it would be a reasonable statistic. This was not studied across the border it was limited in some aspect to just this company when I’m sure that there are other companies in the same competitive market that could have been studied to show a variety in the validity of the statement presented .

This memo also shows the merit of Ms. Forsythe’s proposal that she proposed to establish, which s new leadership development program is for our junior insurance executives. It is mention in the memo that it Ms. foresthye put negated the VP , for ill will and a hidden agenda to do harm to the his job. The research and findings are merely based upon personal beliefs as well and it down talks another employee for doing something that is in the field of harassment or defamation of one’s character.

What significant information is omitted?
The most important factor would be growth of the company. The VP did not note or back his evidence and finding for what he felt to be true with any financial data. By having that data it would let me know where the company currently stands in a financial aspect and where they would be if this program was implemented. This would be very strong information because it show the main portion of how a company thrives in a very competitive market. This will allow other to see where the upcoming budget would stand and even maybe if they could implement the program but on a smaller scale. What reasonable conclusions are possible?

I believe that the author has come up with a very reasonable conclusion. However, it is understood that it is merely based on opinion, which were just visibly noted and not facts. There was not enough evidence to support his decision that eliminating the leadership program for the growth of the company would be beneficial. Which I cannot agree with I think that if he had shown financial that I would be able to support his suggestions and findings. The ideas and opinions that were produced seemed to be a bias towards another employee that maybe even considered at some point in time discriminatory. Therefore, I definitely would have him take an extra look at what he was saying against what he was trying to say.

All though he quoted some quotes from great people these are just their thoughts, nothing they have said I proven true. I believe that after reading his memo his evaluate the merit of Ms. Forsythe’s proposal that we establish and fund a new leadership development program for our junior insurance executives should have no weight in whether or not the program should continue to be created or be shut down.

Conclusion
I felt that the VP was very opposed to the programs. But it seemed to me that he was opposed to those reasons because of personal belief and bias. I think that if you truly want to negate a proposal you have to come hard with solid facts, opinions will just not suffice for a negotiation. We all have a duty as employees to have the best interest of the company in mind when we propose or negate things. With that being said, I believe that the VP’s memo had no merit or credibility for the company. I actually find the view about the most successful executives being very tall in stature over 6 feet very discriminatory. And if would have read this memo the VP would probably no longer be an employee of this company.

Citations
Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the authors and dates of the sources. The full source citation will appear in the list of references that follows the body of the paper. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the authors, for example, Smith (2001). When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons, for example (Smith and Jones, 2001; Anderson, Charles, & Johnson, 2003). When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited.

When that source is cited again, the first author’s surname and “et al.” are used. See the example in the following paragraph. Use of this standard APA style “will result in a favorable impression on your instructor” (Smith, 2001). This was affirmed again in 2003 by Professor Anderson (Anderson, Charles & Johnson, 2003). When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are cited every time. If there are six or more authors to be cited, use the first author’s surname and “et al.” the first and each subsequent time it is cited. When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation.

Product and Services
The Great escape is a restaurant that will cater to a family’s needs. We will offer Breakfast lunch and dinner in a family friendly environment. All of the food provided will be provided in a very strict and sanitary way. Our goal is to provide a legendary service to each and every one of our patrons no matter if it’s their first or fifth time. The menu will be simple American dishes that the family can enjoy together or if you have the one child that will or can only eat certain items will also be able to enjoy! There will be daily specials provided. And those specials will not only cater to the adult it will be appealing to the youth as well. I have listed a sample menu in the appendix below: Our menu will be made up with simple traditional American food. These meals will only be prepared by certified culinary professionals.

All staff will be trained in the positions that they acquire to make sure that they provide the best quality service that is available I know the first thing you think is that why would a simple restaurant want culinary professionals. Well we also want to cater to those who have food allergies and only eat organic foods and also vegetarians. So families can substitute any of the following meals to accommodate any of the situations listed above. We also will provide the adults with a list of alcoholic beverages for the days they want to venture out without the kids just to have a lovely yet entertaining dinner without the family. We are hoping to have an more intimate setting for those adults who want fine dining, but choose to be away from the family setting for example anniversary dinners. We provide a fun filled atmosphere to sit in a dine with your family something to cater to all .

We will offer to the parents and or adults the opportunity to listen to live music and with this it will offer local bands musicians and poets the chance to be heard. The adults will be able to sit back enjoy a cocktail and still enjoy the families
company. Or if they prefer to venture out without the kids just to have a lovely yet entertaining dinner without the family. We are hoping to have an more intimate setting for those adults who want fine dining, but choose to be away from the family setting for example anniversary dinners, birthdays, etc. Then we have the young adults to children have the option to color or do puzzles on their menus this is universal in most restaurants, but in the Great Escape will give them some fun interaction as well by offering booth tables a small screen TV and remote with kid friendly TV trivia and some other games to keep the children calm while preparing their meals. Competitive edge

Our Competitive Edge is having safe family fun while being able to have a very flexible cuisine to cater to your needs. Most restaurants don’t offer many options for the family as a whole. We want to offer an experience like no other. We don’t want families to be upset and angry over wait times and the fact that the food was very distasting after that fact as well. Our atmosphere is very entertaining full of vibrant life. The scenery will definitely catch your eye. It definitely will make your kids and teens excited to go out and dine in! Competitors

There are many restaurants to compete with . But with my research none of them actually cater to family environment. I was told by a collegue who actually took the survey that we provided to get reallive data. Lucia Johnson stated that she is never eager to go out with her family of 6 she stated that her teenage daughters are always complaining because it took so long to get there food their bored and wished she would just simply go to Mc Donald’s or wendy’s . So below I have listed a few competitors who have listed as family and kid friendly restaurants. •Carmines

•Aria Pizzaria
•Old Glory BBQ
•Johnny Rockets
•Fuddruckers
•Cheeburger
•Hard times café
•Generous George positive pizaa @pasta place
•Red robin
•Bugaboo Creek steak house
•Tgif Fridays
•Chucky cheese
•International house of pancakes

There are two competitors in particular that Nakia brown an surveyor thought stood out to her as being the closests to being family friendly were chucky cheese and TGIF Fridays. She stated that Chucky cheese is not very adult friendly it caters to the kids because after all of the tokens are done from the games the adults are left to watch the kids run and play.

Then also have another competitor. Which is TGIF Fridays they are now offering a Dj and TV trivia and it is centered around the bar and not very kid friendly as far as entertainment, it is more geared towards the more mature crowd. So she would definitely patronize our establishment if she could satisfied some of the wait time for her and her family.

It’s important to choose the right kind of restaurant when dining out with kids. If you are looking for a reasonably priced meal at a Washington, DC area restaurant that has good food and caters to kids, check out these restaurants.

Do you have a favorite restaurant to take the kids? You may share your suggestion by sending me an email at dc@aboutguide.com.

The Breakfast menu would Contain the following listed below: Omelettes
Waffles
Pancakes
Oatmeal
Cereal
Eggs
Toast
Potatoes
Grits
Bacon
Sausage
The Lunch menu will contain the following:
Burgers
Fries
Create your own salads
Chicken tenders/nuggets
Hot dogs
Pizza
wings

The Dinner menu will contain:
Chicken/ wings
Steak
Ribs
Fish
Pizza

References
Browne, M. N., & Keeley, S.M. (2012). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking, 10th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Hill, L.A. (2004). New manager development for the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 18(3)

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Health Policy: Childhood Obesity

The childhood obesity has become a burning issue of the contemporary society with vivid example seen in the United States of America and other countries. In spite of the actions taken by the local governments and on the national level, we still have “one-third of American children overweight or obese and national health care spending on obesity nearing $150 billion annually” (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2013). In this respect, the funding is inappropriate, because there are no improvements seen either in the nearest future or within the long-term perspective. The resources available include legislature to be introduced with the expected outcomes of reducing the childhood obesity by 5 per cent and health care savings reaching as much as $29 billion annually (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2013). The recommendations include a list of corresponding legislature enacted in all the states opposed to current application of separate positions enacted in 2011. For instance, the State of Georgia as well as the State of Maine has enacted School Nutrition and Physical Education/Physical Activity options, while Nutrition Education and School Nutrition options are available to schoolchildren in the State of Louisiana (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2013). In other words, most states have only applied one of the six options available, whereas a combination of at least three would be more effective in case of such an elevated level of childhood obesity in all states with no exceptions. Dietary behavior, food environment, and physical activity are listed as the factors influencing the obesity trends in the United States. As suggested in the graphs demonstrating the obesity trends in adult population of the America since 1990 to 2009, the fast increase of the obese people is due to dietary behaviors (consumption of

Dietary behavior, food environment, and physical activity are listed as the factors influencing the obesity trends in the United States. As suggested in the graphs demonstrating the obesity trends in adult population of the America since 1990 to 2009, the fast increase of the obese people is due to dietary behaviors (consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and fats), spread of fast food restaurants becoming an integral part of the American culture and lifestyles, and low rates of physical activity (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2013). At the same time, what adults show their children becomes an integral part of the family culture and enters the national level with no one talking care of the nutrition education and physical activity of children. Do children have to suffer due to inappropriate dietary behaviors of their parents and lack of healthy food in the environment (school cafeteria, home, places for dining)? There enough laws to solve this issue, whereas their implementation is not as active as it would be needed to meet all requirements and make the nation healthier. The existing laws demonstrate willingness of the legal governments to change the health care situation related to childhood obesity, but they should try harder to adjust the existing rules and regulations regarding school policies related to nutrition, education, and physical activities to the expected standards. “Extensive research shows that regular physical activity is important for preventing and treating obesity and other chronic diseases, disabling conditions, and risk factors for chronic disease” (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2013, p. 28). On the one hand, there are sufficient options available to children to get rid of obesity and prevent it. On the other hand, clear guidance and some restriction should be imposed to attain the goals in fight with childhood obesity. The recommended solution for current childhood obesity rates in the United States can be adopted from the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) who analyzed the “factors associated with state legislative action to address childhood obesity” (p. 162). The current status of the childhood obesity is traced only through the analyses carried out by researchers, but they do not concern the current year. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Student Fitness Screening Legislation enacted by seven states in 2011 enable the school administration and nurses to trace the fitness of children and apply corresponding measures to change their obesity status, if any. In this respect, this can be considered the most accurate and evidence-based information on the current status of the childhood obesity in the United States. The problem is that it should be available in all states with the options for fixing the occurring issues and deviations in children’s weight. Though some barriers to enactment of the anti-obesity

The recommended solution for current childhood obesity rates in the United States can be adopted from the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) who analyzed the “factors associated with state legislative action to address childhood obesity” (p. 162). The current status of the childhood obesity is traced only through the analyses carried out by researchers, but they do not concern the current year. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Student Fitness Screening Legislation enacted by seven states in 2011 enable the school administration and nurses to trace the fitness of children and apply corresponding measures to change their obesity status, if any. In this respect, this can be considered the most accurate and evidence-based information on the current status of the childhood obesity in the United States. The problem is that it should be available in all states with the options for fixing the occurring issues and deviations in children’s weight. Though some barriers to enactment of the anti-obesity

Do children have to suffer due to inappropriate dietary behaviors of their parents and lack of healthy food in the environment (school cafeteria, home, places for dining)? There enough laws to solve this issue, whereas their implementation is not as active as it would be needed to meet all requirements and make the nation healthier. The existing laws demonstrate willingness of the legal governments to change the health care situation related to childhood obesity, but they should try harder to adjust the existing rules and regulations regarding school policies related to nutrition, education, and physical activities to the expected standards. “Extensive research shows that regular physical activity is important for preventing and treating obesity and other chronic diseases, disabling conditions, and risk factors for chronic disease” (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2013, p. 28). On the one hand, there are sufficient options available to children to get rid of obesity and prevent it. On the other hand, clear guidance and some restriction should be imposed to attain the goals in fight with childhood obesity. The recommended solution for current childhood obesity rates in the United States can be adopted from the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) who analyzed the “factors associated with state legislative action to address childhood obesity” (p. 162). The current status of the childhood obesity is traced only through the analyses carried out by researchers, but they do not concern the current year. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Student Fitness Screening Legislation enacted by seven states in 2011 enable the school administration and nurses to trace the fitness of children and apply corresponding measures to change their obesity status, if any. In this respect, this can be considered the most accurate and evidence-based information on the current status of the childhood obesity in the United States. The problem is that it should be available in all states with the options for fixing the occurring issues and deviations in children’s weight. Though some barriers to enactment of the anti-obesity

The recommended solution for current childhood obesity rates in the United States can be adopted from the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) who analyzed the “factors associated with state legislative action to address childhood obesity” (p. 162). The current status of the childhood obesity is traced only through the analyses carried out by researchers, but they do not concern the current year. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Student Fitness Screening Legislation enacted by seven states in 2011 enable the school administration and nurses to trace the fitness of children and apply corresponding measures to change their obesity status, if any. In this respect, this can be considered the most accurate and evidence-based information on the current status of the childhood obesity in the United States. The problem is that it should be available in all states with the options for fixing the occurring issues and deviations in children’s weight. Though some barriers to enactment of the anti-obesity legislation can be found on all levels, the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) suggest thet “enactment of an anti-obesity law is 20% points more likely in states headed by Democratic governors, and that enactment of a school nutrition law is 19.4% points less likely in states with Republican-controlled legislatures” (p. 166). Nevertheless, the state legislature options have been enacted by 50 states in order to measure, prevent, and solve the problems related to childhood obesity on the national level. Local governments may be easier to impact in terms of immediate decision to be made, but the state legislature is more likely to affect more educational facilities and produce a larger effect on the obese children through schools with regard to nutrition, corresponding education, and physical activity.

The problem is that it should be available in all states with the options for fixing the occurring issues and deviations in children’s weight. Though some barriers to enactment of the anti-obesity legislation can be found on all levels, the findings by Cawley and Liu (2008) suggest thet “enactment of an anti-obesity law is 20% points more likely in states headed by Democratic governors, and that enactment of a school nutrition law is 19.4% points less likely in states with Republican-controlled legislatures” (p. 166). Nevertheless, the state legislature options have been enacted by 50 states in order to measure, prevent, and solve the problems related to childhood obesity on the national level. Local governments may be easier to impact in terms of immediate decision to be made, but the state legislature is more likely to affect more educational facilities and produce a larger effect on the obese children through schools with regard to nutrition, corresponding education, and physical activity.

References

https://graduateway.com/client-therapist-relationship/

Managing resistance to change

1.0. Change Management
1.1.

Managing the Change Process

Change management has been defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an organisation’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers’. (Todnem, 2005)

Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation, and above all, consultation with, and involvement of, the people affected by the changes. If you force change on people normally problems arise. The organisation has impressions like ‘mindset change’ or ‘changing attitudes’. These expressions imply that it’s the people having the wrong mindset which is never the case. (Allen, 2008)

Change such as new structures, new teams, re-locations, etc., all create new
systems and environments, which need to be explained to people as early as possible, so that people’s involvement in validating and refining the changes themselves can be obtained. This tells us that the organisations management style according to McGregor’s theory is X.

1.2.

McGregor’s Theory X and Y Model

McGregor argued that managers operate from their personal view of how employees function. He separated managers into two groups based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He related Theory X managers to lower order needs in the hierarchy and Theory Y managers to higher order needs. (Glen) 1.2.1. Theory X

Theory X managers assume that people are intrinsically lazy, take no responsibility, are incapable of self-discipline and only want security. People must be controlled and threatened before they will work. The autocratic leadership style is the only one that works. (Business Balls) 1.2.2. Theory Y

Theory Y managers assume that people like their work, are intrinsically motivated, have self-control and do seek responsibility. Employees can be consulted since individuals are emotionally mature, positively motivated towards their work; and see their own position in the management hierarchy. Managers will find that the participative approach to problem is solving and decision

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making leads to far better results than authoritarian orders from above. (Business Balls)
1.2.3. Example 1.0
Five employees from different functions were asked to fill out the questionnaire. This quick test provides a broad indication as to management style and individual preference, using the ‘X-Y Theory’ definitions. Please
see Appendix A. Table 1 below summarises the type of management style the employers have. Employee

X

1

*

2

*

Y

3


*

4

*

5

*

Table 1.0
1.2.4. Managing X theory boss’s
It is clearly shown that the organisation has an X management style. Working for X management is not always easy but there are ways of managing these people. Avoiding confrontation and delivering results is the key tactics. If an X theory boss tells you how to do things in ways that are not comfortable or right for you, then don’t question the process, simply confirm the
end-result that is required, and check that it’s okay to ‘streamline the process’ or ‘get things done more efficiently’ if the chance arises – they’ll normally agree to this, which effectively gives you control over the ‘how’, provided you deliver the ‘what’ and ‘when’.

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2.0. People factors that influence the Change Process
The failure by managers to take on board the people factors, which can in the long run be critical to the success or failure of change initiatives. Too much attention is given to process issues. These leads to resistance to change as people were faced with new situations, problems and circumstances and are confused.

2.1.

Resistance to Change

There are numerous sources of resistance, including cultural or belief barriers, group

solidarity,

rejection

of

outsiders,

structural

divisions,

technology,

managerial philosophy and managerial style. The most frequent causes of resistance

are

the

way

the

change

is

introduced.

Some

personality

characteristics do not collate well with change (e.g. age, depressions, strong structure goals), but most people do not want to change and may have been waiting many years. (W.Hunt)2
Questioning the motives of managers and blaming initiators for any small organisational hiccup are all familiar tactics. Employees then have no motivation into learning new things because higher management are not listening to them and have not communicated the changes that will affect them. 2.1.1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow suggested that as human beings we have series of things we want or need. He defined five models in a pyramid hierarchy that is shown in a pyramid. Figure 1.0 describes the needs.

Figure 1.0: Maslow’s Hierarchy Pyramid

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. When the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. (McIntosh, Topic 4: Motivation)

2.1.2. Example 2.0
Five employees were given the quick Maslow’s test based on hierarchy of needs. It is a quick indicator that can be used for self-awareness and can be used in discussions for the change management process. (Business Balls) See Appendix B for an example.

Employee

A

B

1

2

C

D

3

E

4

5

Table 2.0

Looking at table 2.0 many of the employees are deficiency motivators. This will help managers to identify which particular needs are relevant for employees and thus to determine appropriate motivators. It is a useful technique to explain why people resist to organisational change. Changes such as redundancies can threaten their income and security. Because of structural changes and new responsibilities

they

become

insecure

and

without

any

support

from

management will not be able to cope. In the final analysis the only way to do so effectively is to understand the unique circumstances within each individual that is causing their particular resistance.

2.2.

Motivation

When employees become resistant to change this can have an effect on the work environment and people become de motivated. As shown in example 2.0. Managers need to know to gain the co-operation of staff and how to encourage them to perform in such a manner as to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation. (McIntosh, Topic 4: Motivation) Maslow’s theory suggested that people are unlikely to be motivated by an environment which fulfils needs at a much higher level when their lower level needs have not been fulfilled.

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2.2.1. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg discovered that there appeared to be two key factors, influencing
motivation at work. (McIntosh, Topic 4: Motivation) These are: –

Hygiene factors – These are external to the job, for example; salary, personal life, work conditions, security etc.

Motivators – These relate to the job content, for example; recognition, growth, responsibility etc.

The hygiene factors can not necessarily lead to a motivated team but without them can lead to dissatisfaction. Understanding the basic psychological needs of an employee is a starting point.
2.2.1.1.
Impact on Change Initiative
At the planning stage of the change initiative and when reviewing the impact of the change on the people that is affected by it, hygiene theory influences the stakeholder mapping processes and the communication strategy. It focuses change leaders on the impacts of these two dimensions of human needs motivators and dissatisfiers. (Nigel Bassett-Jones, 2005). The stakeholder mapping process will identify who will this change affect and how they will react to it? This is one key activity management have missed and failure to involve the people in the process. There are many other reasons but it is suggested that the route cause is the lack of communication.

2.3.

John Kotter’s principles for managing change

John Kotter’s highly regarded books ‘Leading Change’ (1995) and the follow-up ‘The Heart of Change’ (2002) describes a popular and helpful model for understanding and managing change.
Each stage acknowledges a key principle identified by Kotter relating to people’s response and approach to change, and in which people see, feel and
then change. (Steven H. Appelbaum)

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Figure 2.0

Kotter argued that the first four stages don’t even make any changes, it more about establishing a stage, loosening up the system and establishing a base for which a new system can be created. (Kotter, 1997) These are the key steps company X have missed completely as there was no base built to produce a transformation of significance. It was more like heading straight to step five and putting in the change without anyone being in the loop. They had a vision with any real strategy; assumption was getting enough data about customers and their competition the ideal strategy will emerge. You may come up with alternative strategies but there will be no real base to make the choices. (Kotter, 1997)

Kotter’s eight step model is an excellent starting point for mangers implementing change in their organisation, and applying the model is likely to improve the chances of success.

Discussion
The change programme would have been more effective if transformational leadership was used. Treating the forces against change is a more productive use of resources than simply reinforcing the forces for change. Appropriately managing resistance would require deploying the following recommendations:

Decide on the most powerful of the restraining forces and devote time and energy to weakening these.

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Demonstrate to the fiercest resisters what’s in it for them. Influence them either in terms of personal gain.

Illustrate to change resisters face to face how the current situation disadvantages them in way they can understand.

2.4.

Reflections of Theories

The type of management that exists in company X is according to McGregor’s theory is Type X. With this type of management it is useful to apply Fiedler’s Least

Preferred

co-worker

theory.

This

approach

seeks

to

identify

the

underlying beliefs about people, in particular whether the leader sees others as positive (high LPC) or negative (low LPC). The neat trick of the model is to take someone where it would be very easy to be negative about them. (McIntosh, Topic 5: Leadership and Management)

Putting that aside it is clearly shown that there was no management process in place to make the change successful. When the redundancies were announced no employees were given a valid justification of such a dramatic action. The whole production site was put under a lot of pressure as the company failed to meet customer deadlines. There was no plan put into place of how the operators will cope when sales volumes increases.

From table 2.0: Maslow’s quick self test based on the hierarchy of needs gives you an interpretation the type of needs employees put first.

The more you

understand people’s needs, the better you will be able to manage change and being mindful of people’s strengths and weaknesses. Not everyone welcomes change. Taking the time to understand the people you are dealing with, and how and why they feel like they do, before taking action.

2.5.

Final Analysis

Rather than using the decide announce defend (DAD) model; to get better results a more dynamic model should have been deployed such as InvolveAgree-Implement model (IAI model). It involves all individuals that are impacted by the change, agree on the change/matter and finally implement the change as a whole organisation.

Please see Appendix C – A useful guidance diagram of how to involve individuals. (Circles)
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Any further change programmes that company X would like to implement the following issues should be considered to reduce resistance to change (Lang): 

Involve all employees that will be impacted by the change by asking them for suggestions.

Clearly define the need for change by communicating the strategic decision personally and in written form.

Disrupt only what needs to be changed and form comfortable setting and trust between groups involved.

Announce the strategy of change when the organisation is ready.

Focus on continual positive attributes of the change.

Deliver

training

programmes

which

involve;

communication,

conducting meetings, team building, and self-esteem and coaching.

3.0. Evaluation
The objective of this report was to understand why the organisational changes lead to such negativity and why people are resistant to change. Resistance was considered as a risk within a change implementation program, which needs to be explicitly managed.

It is concluded that the change management process was focused on changing systems, processes and procedures and not enough on changing people and the culture of the organisation. This lead to poor communication, no motivation, stress for employees and a low morale. The culture of the organisations was completely changed which lead to a resistance amongst the employees. Therefore employees are not responsible to manage change but to do their best in the situation. Responsibility with managing change is with management and executives of the organisation. They must manage the change in a way that employees cope. Using the theories explained in this report can help during the change process. It will help managers understand reasons, aims and ways of responding positively according to employees own situations and capabilities.

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For future benefits the company has to encourage a learning culture that can be cultivated as it touches and connects all employees, which in time creates cultural traits and allows the employees to voice their opinions.

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Works Cited
Allen, L. (2008). Managing Change at a workplace: A practical guide. Business Performance. Business Balls. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com: http://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm
Circles, S. (n.d.). Dialogue to Change program. Retrieved 04 22, 2013, from Study Circles: http://studycircles.net.au/Content/2011/04/dialogue-to-change-diagram/ Gill, R. (2002). Change management–or change leadership?, Journal of Change Management, 3:4,. Glen, P. Lecture Note: Motivation-People and Change. Rober Gordan University. H.Schein, E. (1992). Organisational culture and Leadership.

Kotter, J. P. (1997). Leading change: A conversation with John P. Kotter. Strategy & Leadership Volume 25 Issue: 1 .
Lang, C. (n.d.). Change is a process not an event.
McIntosh, D. Topic 4: Motivation. The Rober Gordon university . McIntosh, D. Topic 5: Leadership and Management. Robert Gordon University . Morgan, G. 1. (1997). Images of Organization. Sage Publications, Thousand. Nigel Bassett-Jones, G. C. (2005). Does Herzberg’s motivation theory have staying power? Journal of management Development .

Steven H. Appelbaum, S. H.-L. (n.d.). Bake to the Future: Revisiting Kotter’s 1996 change model. Journal of Management Development Volume: 31 Issue: 8 2012 . Todnem, R. (2005). Rune Todnem By (2005): Organisational change management: A critical review, Journal of Change. Journal of Change management , 369-380.

W.Hunt, J. Managing people at work.
Walker, P. (2009, february 2). Dinosaur DAD and Enlightened EDD .

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Appendices

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Appendix A

The ‘X – Y Theory’ Questionnaire

Indicates whether the situation and management style is the ‘X’ or ‘Y’ style: Score the statements (5 = always, 4 = mostly, 3 = often, 2 = occasionally, 1 = rarely, 0 = never) _ 01)

My boss asks me politely to do things, gives me reasons why, and invites my suggestions.

_ 02)

I am encouraged to learn skills outside of my immediate area of responsibility.

_ 03)

I am left to work without interference from my boss, but help is available if I want it.

_ 04)

I am given credit and praise when I do good work or put in extra effort.

_ 05)

People leaving the company are given an ‘exit interview’ to hear their views on the organisation.

_ 06)

I am incentivised to work hard and well.

_ 07)

If I want extra responsibility my boss will find a way to give it to me.

_ 08)

If I want extra training my boss will help me find how to get it or will arrange it.

_ 09)

I call my boss and my boss’s boss by their first names.

_ 10)

My boss is available for me to discuss my concerns or worries or suggestions.

_ 11)

I know what the company’s aims and targets are.

_ 12)

I am told how the company is performing on a regular basis.

_ 13)

I am given an opportunity to solve problems connected with my work.

_ 14)

My boss tells me what is happening in the organisation.

_ 15)

I have regular meetings with my boss to discuss how I can improve and develop.

_

Total Score

60 – 75 = Strong Y Theory Management (Effective long & short term) 45 – 59 = Generally Y Theory Management
16 – 44 = Generally X Theory Management
0 – 15 = Strongly X Theory Management (Autocratic leadership may be effective in the short term but poor in the long term)

Appendix B

Quick self-test based on the ‘Hierarchy of Needs’.
Read the following eight statements and tick below those that apply to you. There are no right or wrong answers. Interpretation guide below.

† A I am successful in life and/or work, and I’m recognised by my peers for being so. I’m satisfied with the responsibility and role that I have in life and/or work, my status and reputation, and my level of self-esteem.

† B I am part of, and loved by, my family. I have good relationships with my friends and colleagues – they accept me for who I am.

† C My aim is self-knowledge and enlightenment. The most important thing to me is realising my ultimate personal potential. I seek and welcome ‘peak’ experiences.

† D Aside from dieting and personal choice, I never starve through lack of food, or lack of money to buy food. Aside from the usual trauma of moving house, I have no worry at all about having somewhere to live – I have ‘a roof over my head’. † E I generally feel safe and secure – job, home, etc – and protected from harm. My life generally has routine and structure – long periods of uncontrollable chaos are rare or non-existent.

References:

https://graduateway.com/imax-case-analysis/

http://www.slideshare.net/jakejohnson2/imax-larger-than-life

https://www.coursehero.com/file/12829594/IMAX-Larger-than-Life/

The French and Indian war

The French and Indian war was fought between 1754 and 1763 and was known in Europe as the Seven Years War. This war was fought in North America and it was between the British settlers and French settlers in North America who were fighting over the region known as Ohio River valley. Each of the white settlers wanted to possess the region as it would help in expanding the fur trade which both the French and Britons were involved in. The British side was led by George Washington who is also the one who initiated the war. Leadership was then taken over by General Edward Braddock who did not heed Washington’s advice and died from wounds sustained when they were attacked by French and native army on their way to attack the French. After losing many battles, new leaders took over and these were General James Wolfe and General Jeffrey Amherst.

On the French side, the leaders included Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers, Francois de Levis and General Louis Joseph.To win the war, each side applied strategies that would work in their favor. The major one involved formation of alliances with the natives. In fact, it is these alliances that helped France win its battles with the British for long. Even though both sides had formed alliances with the French and Briton settlers, the main reason why the natives were fighting in the war is that they wanted to prevent either of the sides from taking over their land.

            This war had its consequences. To begin with, it led to defeat of the French by the British after which the French gave up Canada and all its claims to India. The result was British control of North America. To protect its newly acquired territory, the British had to send more troops to North America and to finance this, American colonists were taxed heavily. The colonists were not happy with the British rule and this led to the American Revolution.

Source: Graduateway.com